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Sociologist Tradition

Organizational consultants adds weight to the socially created norms and values which constitute an organizational culture. Process Consultations and broad participation are important in change work, and thus profitability. There are many directions within this tradition. Two of them are the Modernists and the Symbolists.

The Modernists consider the organization as an open system. The organization's core technology is the one that is used to produce primary products (eg. Education, health services). It consists of (i) physical objects and artifacts, (ii) activities and processes and (iii) knowledge and knowhow. Three types of relationships define an organizational culture: hierarchical division of labor, organic division of labor and coordination mechanisms.

The Symbolists emphasize the technological diversity in an organization. Along with other postmodernists, they have introduced the theory of structuration (Anthony Giddens) and other modern organizational forms such as network structure and virtual organizations. A network structure can result from a wide-ranging outsourcing. An organizational structure is something that grows from relationships formed through an interaction process.