|System theory operates with structural levels like: "Supra System", "System" and "Subsystem". Supra system, or meta-system, refers normally to the world outside the organization. The organization unit stands as a system with its sub-systems. System theory is used in many disciplines. An organizational systems highlights the way work is coordinated and executed to achieve specific goals.
On each systemic level there is a process that starts with inpu_throughput_output_feedback and ends with outcome. The process is applicable to both human and non-human matters. Digesting food, for instance, could be illustrated using all the five steps.
The two main sub-systems that transform input to output are: The technological subsystem that refers to knowledge and planning documents that are necessary during transformation. The socio-political subsystem refers to expectations, roles, behaviors, styles, manager profiles etc. that illustrates how employees relate to and support each other.
These two subsystems form the structural subsystem that is normally made visual in an organization chart. The chart shows workflow, distribution of power, authority, resources and roles.